In the late 1700s, the British physician Edward Jenner invented a safer smallpox vaccine based on stories he heard about how milkmaids never got smallpox. Cows can get infected with cowpox, a close relative of smallpox, and so Jenner wondered if it provided some protection. He took pus from the hand of a milkmaid named Sarah Nelmes and inoculated it into the arm of a boy. The boy developed a few small pustules, but otherwise he suffered no symptoms. Six weeks later, Jenner variolated the boy—in other words, he exposed the boy to smallpox, rather than cowpox. The boy developed no pustules at all. Jenner published a pamphlet in 1798 documenting this new, safer way to prevent smallpox. He dubbed it “vaccination,” after the Latin name of cowpox, Variolae vaccinae.